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Trichocereus litoralis – Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis

Trichocereus litoralis – Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis

This beautiful Trichocereus species is definitely closely related to Trichocereus chiloensis and the current taxonomy is treating it as a variety or subspecies to it. Trichocereus litoralis always was a problematic species because there are so many intermediate forms between Trichocereus chiloensis and Trichocereus litoralis that it is extremely difficult to draw the line somewhere. While some treat it as part of Trichocereus chiloensis, some others disagree and treat it as a separate species. Personally, I think that the whole group of plants surrounding Trichocereus chiloensis is very variable and we should simply respect that plants can be related to each other and at the same time, look a little bit different. The species is also very closely related to Trichocereus skottsbergii, which I also regard as a variety of Trichocereus chiloensis/Echinopsis chiloensis.

Origin of E.litoralis:

Chile. Growing mostly around the coast line. Coquimbo

Synonyms of T.litoralis:

Echinopsis litoralis, Cereus litoralis, Trichocereus chiloensis var. litoralis, Trichocereus chilensis var. litoralis, Cereus chilensis,

The type location is in Zapallar, north of Valparaiso near the coast of Chile. The species is widely distributed all across the coast up to Los Vilos. The many radial spines are needle-like, while the middle spines are pretty strong and thick and up to 3 cm long. It has 9-28 radial spines and 3-6 middle spines.

Trichocereus chiloensis ssp. litoralis gets between 1-2 meters tall. It has a very dark green color and and a maximum diameter of 10-15 centimeters.

Ribs of Echinopsis chiloensis ssp.litoralis:

15-22, areoles approximately 1-2 centimeters apart of each other.

Flowers of Trichocereus litoralis:

Trichocereus litoralis has a white flower, which is extremely similar to the one on Trichocereus chiloensis. The flowers are up to 15 centimeters long, which is on the lower end of the scale for Trichocerei.

Fruit of E.litoralis:

Round, dark green. Up to 5 Centimeters in diameter

Where to buy seeds and cuttings of Trichocereus litoralis?

You can get some seeds of Trichocereus litoralis in my shop.

 

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 2

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 4

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 58c

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 8Pic: Richard Hipp! Thank you very much!

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 8

Have a look at this beautiful picture of Trichocereus litoralis growing along the coast line in Chile.

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 12

The flower of Trichocereus litoralis is extremely beautiful and can be used in hybrid breeding. Unfortunately, those plants take very long until they reach adulthood.

The photos below: Photos: Ármin Bindics

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 13

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 61

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 76

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis chiloensis ssp. litoralis 68

Photos below: Pedro Lopez Artes

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes 77 Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes (2) 2 Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes (3) Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes (5) Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes (4)

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis

Ulrich Hörner

Trichocereus litoralis Echinopsis litoralis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes

Trichocereus chiloensis (Echinopsis chiloensis) T.chilensis

Trichocereus chiloensis (Echinopsis chiloensis) T.chilensis

Trichocereus chiloensis, also known as Trichocereus chilensis or Echinopsis chiloensis, is a columnar cactus from Chile. It is closely related to Trichocereus terscheckii and something like the Chilean version of the large Andean Trichocereus species.

Current name:

Echinopsis chiloensis H.Friedrich & G.D.

Synonyms of T. chiloensis:

T. chilensis, T. chiloensis, Echinopsis chilensis, E. chiloensis, Cactus chiloensis, cereus chiloensis, Trichocereus skottsbergii, Trichocereus nigripilus, Echinopsis skottsbergii, Echinopsis nigripilus, Trichocereus spinibarbis. Trichocereus litoralis, Echinopsis litoralis, Trichocereus bolligerianus, Echinopsis bolligerianus

It´s debatable whether or not Trichocereus litoralis and Trichocereus coquimbanus are synonymous with Trichocereus chiloensis, but there is a clear connection and intermediates exist. 

Some people consider Eulychnia eburnea to be synonymous with Tr. chiloensis / E. chiloensis, but I disagree vehemently. The plants look kinda similar, but the flowers of them are very different and clearly belong to the genus Eulychnia.

This Trichocereus species is the predominant Trichocereus in Chile. The Name “chiloensis” is the taxonomically correct one, but there´s a very high chance this was typo as the name was supposed to mean”Chilean Trichocereus” and not “Trichocereus from Chiloe”. T. chilensis doesn not grow anywhere near the island of Chiloe. This makes the confusion around the name even more ridiculous. I understand that Taxonomy has to prefer the earliest name recorded, but in this case, the name Trichocereus chilensis should be ignored because it is the taxonomic equivalent of a typo.

Trichocereus chilensis grows from the Provence Talca in the south of Chile down to the Elqui Valley in the Provence Coquimbo in the north. There are various varieties and the maximum size of the plants varies greatly. Trichocereus chiloensis is one of the most typical cacti in Chile, grows like a tree and can get up to 6-7 meters tall. It grows as strong columns that reach a maximum diameter of 15 centimeters. The areoles are white/beige and up to 2 centimeters long. It has 10-12 radial spines that are up to 2 centimeters large and 2-4 middle spines. The middle spines are usually between 5-10 centimeters long-

Flower: The flower of Trichocereus chilensis is a little smaller than the ones on other Trichocereus species. It is between 8-14 centimeters long. The tube has very little hair on it and is 4-6 centimeters long, white petals (up to 5 centimeters long). Trichocereus chiloensis is a diurnal species, but the flowers tend to stay open for a very long time, sometimes even up late into the night so you might get the idea it is actually night flowering. There are many varieties or intermediates of Trichocereus chilensis, which grow all around the habitats and in the area where different types grow in the neighborhood of each other.

Varieties or regional forms:

Trichocereus chiloensis var. eburneus

Trichocereus chiloensis pantholipes

Trichocereus chiloensis borealis

Trichocereus chiloensis ssp. borealis Patrick Noll

Trichocereus chiloensis var. australis

Trichocereus chiloensis var. conjungens

Trichocereus chiloensis var. skottsbergii

Trichocereus skottsbergii Trichocereus chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes JN 380 Highway Fray Jorge, Coquimbo, Chile 269m

Trichocereus skottsbergii Trichocereus chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes JN 380 Highway Fray Jorge, Coquimbo, Chile 269m (2)

Pedro Lopez Artes

Trichocereus chiloensis var. litoralis

Trichocereus chiloensis ssp. litoralis Pedro Lopez Artes

Trichocereus chiloensis ssp. litoralis Pedro Lopez Artes (2)

Pedro Lopez Artes

Cultivation of E. chiloensis:

Trichocereus chiloensis is a very tough cactus, just like many other cacti from Bolivian or Chilean deserts . They can take extreme heat and are very easy to grow. But they don’t like too much water, so you should never give too much water at once. They should only be watered in summer and require dry soil medium during the winter. Besides, they need a temperature change during the water in order to produce flowers. That means that you should overwinter Trichocereus chiloensis in a bright and well-ventilated room between October and April until there are no more night frosts. Trichocereus chiloensis is able to tolerate slight night frosts but the temperatures should not drop below -9° Celsius or you might lose the cactus. Apart from that, Trichocereus chiloensis is really easy and can thrive on very poor soil medium. I can recommend purely mineral soil mixes for them because they tend to rot when there is too much humus in the soil. A cactus that is kept in a mineral substrate can stay wet for much longer without any damage to the roots that one that is grown in a highly humus substrate.

Growing Trichocereus chiloensis from Seed: Trichocereus chiloensis is similarly easy from seed as any other Trichocereus. The seeds stay long for 5-10 years, though it´s best to use seeds that are not older than one year. The seeds need light to germinate and you usually sprinkle them on top of the soil and put the pot/sowing container in a room with a temperature between 25-30° Celsius for 2-6 weeks. If you still have no seedlings after 2-6 weeks, chances are that the seeds are not viable. There are not many suppliers for seed of Trichocereus chiloensis. 

Right now I have a terrific strain of Trichocereus chilensis ssp. litoralis in my shop. Check it out here. 

trichocereus chiloensis chilensis huntington botanical gardenTrichocereus Chilensis – Huntington Botanical Garden by Richard Hipp

Jimmy Baikovicius -Echinopsis_chiloensis_(2) Trichocereus chiloensis

Jimmy Baikovicius -Echinopsis_chiloensis_(2) Trichocereus chiloensis

Jimmy Baikovicius -Echinopsis_chiloensis

Jimmy Baikovicius Echinopsis_chiloensis_(1)

Jimmy Baikovicius -Echinopsis_chiloensis_(2) Trichocereus chiloensis 22

Jimmy Baikovicius Echinopsis_chiloensis

Echinopsis chiloensis by penarc_8 Trichocereus chiloensis chilensis

Echinopsis chilensis by penarc

Echinopsis chilensis by penarc

Echinopsis chiloensis Trichocereus chiloensis scott zona scott zona Chusquea_cumingii_by_Scott_Zona

by jorge barrios Echinopsis chiloensis Trichocereus chiloensisby jorge barrios Cactus Chile

Stan Shebs Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis chilensis

by Stan ShebsStan Shebs Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Chilensis

Stan Shebs Trichocereus_chiloensis

Stan Shebs Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Chilensis 2Stan shebs Trichocereus_chiloensis

milodon3 -Quisco Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Chilensismilodon3 -Quisco

pato novia Echinopsis chiloensis v. litoralis Trichocereus litoralis

pato novia Leucostele_chiloensis_(littoralis)

Raffi Kojian Gardenology.org-IMG_2370_Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis ChilensisRaffi Kojian Gardenology.org

Jason Hollinger Echinopsis chiloensis Trichocereus chiloensis Chilensis

Jason Hollinger Echiopsis_chiloensis

matthias ott Echinopsis chiloensis Trichocereus chiloensis flowermatthias ott Echinopsis_sp

Trichocereus chiloensis v. skottsbergii Echinopsis chiloensis Trichocereus chiloensis ssp. skottsbergii Pato_Novoa

milodon3 Photo flower trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis

milodon3 Echinopsis_Chiloensis

jason hollinger Photo flower of trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis

jason hollinger Echinopsis_chiloensisyazz Echinopsis chiloensis Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensisyazz Echinopsis_chiloensis_Yazz

penarc Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis flower collaby penarc Echinopsis_chiloensis_Colla

penarc Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensispenarc Echinopsis_chiloensis

daderot Echinopsis_chiloensis_-_Palmengarten_Frankfurt Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis

by daderot Echinopsis_chiloensis_-_Palmengarten_Frankfurtdaderot Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis Palmengarten Frankfurt daderot Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis Botanical_Garden_in_Kaisaniemi,_Helsinki

daderot -Echinopsis_chiloensis_-_Botanical_Garden_in_Kaisaniemi,_Helsinki

dick culbert Photo flower of trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensisdick culbert Echinopsis_chiloensis

dick culbert Photo flower of trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis

dick culbert Echinopsis_chiloensis_

Photo trichocereus chiloensis chilensis

Trichocereus trichocereus echinopsis chilensis trichocereus net

Photos below: Trichocereus chilonsis Anda Collo Braulio Gonzales

Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Anda Collo Braulio Gonzales (4) Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Anda Collo Braulio Gonzales (2)

Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Anda Collo Braulio Gonzales (3)

Trichocereus chiloensis_v. longispinus from the Fields Collection (Rodni Kisar)

Photo Trichocereus chiloensis Rodni Kisar Trichocereus chiloensis chilensis Echinopsis chiloensis Rodni Kisar

T.chiloensis (Pedro Lopez Artes)

Trichocereus chiloensis fruit Echinopsis chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes

E. chilensis v.longispinus (Rodni and Delia Kisar)

Trichocereus chiloensis v. longispinus from Fields Echinopsis chiloensis Rodni Kisar 2 Trichocereus chiloensis v. longispinus from Fields Echinopsis chiloensis Rodni Kisar Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Delia Kisar (3)    Photo by Michelle Killen, culture plant in the United States

Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Michelle Killen (2)

Chilensis v. longispinus Delia Kisar

Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Delia Kisar Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Delia Kisar (2)

Photo by Michelle Killen

Trichocereus chiloensis Echinopsis chiloensis Michelle Killen

Pedro Lopez Artes Trichocereus chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes Trichocereus chiloensis Pedro Lopez Artes (2) Photo: Jason Hollinger Trichocereus chiloensis ason Hollinger

If you want to see more photos of this species or enjoyed this free article, please join our Trichocereus Facebook group or Instagram.

Also check out our other articles in our Trichocereus species database.

The history of the PC Cactus / PC Trichocereus clone

Trichocereus deserticolus / Echinopsis deserticola

Trichocereus nigripilis / Trichocereus spinibarbis (Echinopsis)

Trichocereus nigripilis / Trichocereus spinibarbis (Echinopsis)

 

Trichocereus nigripilis / Trichocereus spinibarbis is a Chilean Trichocereus species. There is a lot of confusion surrounding the name. According to Ritter, the plant was synonymous with a plant called Cereus spinibarbis Otto, which is why he described it as Trichocereus spinibarbis. These days, Trichocereus nigripilis is not an accepted name anymore and these plants are now understood to be part of the Trichocereus chiloensis complex. The name was re-classified as Echinopsis spinibarbis, but because of the chaotic situation surrounding the name, it would probably be best to lay it to rest.

In addition to the genetic proximity to Trichocereus chiloensis, these plants are very close to Trichocereus coquimbanus/Trichocereus fulvianus/Trichocereus deserticolus. In Coquimbo, there are a couple of intermediates and different forms growing together and this is one of them. But the whole description of the plant called Cereus spinibarbis Otto was already problematic to begin with because it lacked almost everything a reliable description should have. There neither were flowers nor fruits included in the description. The plants are very spiny and look like you´d expect a intermediate between Trichocereus coquimbanus and Trichocereus chilensis to look like. Trichocereus nigripilis (or Echinopsis spinibarbus) is similarly close to Trichocereus chiloensis, as Trichocereus litoralis. The latter is a subspecies/form of Trichocereus chiloensis.

The history of Trichocereus nigripilis is really long and you have to dig through all kinds of different descriptions. And I already mentioned why they are pretty flawed to begin with. The original description of Cereus Spinibarbis Otto came from Förster in 1846. This description was also reprinted in Labourets book in 1853.

Trichocereus Nigripilis has a grass green body and new shoots are approximately 4-5 centimeters thick. It has nine ribs and curved areoles with very distinct separating grooves. It has large, oval areoles that are white felted. The spines are yellow, straight, strong and have a black tip, what is responsible for the name “Nigripilis”. The areoles are 1-2 centimeters long and are only a couple mm apart of each other.

Trichocereus nigripilis has 8-10 radial spines and 2-4 middle spines, which are thick and up to 2,5 centimeters long.

Origin: Coquimbo. 30 Kilometers north of La Serena near the coast.

Salm-Dyck wrote about this plant, that the epidermis is dull and has a sandy/grainy texture. Unfortunately, I lack any plants to confirm this. If you grow one, please let me know because I am fairly interested in this plant and need better pics.

The plant that was described by Britton & Rose as Cereus spinibarbis was a different plant and does not belong here. They described a Eulychnia.

Trichocereus nigripilis forms large & multi-branched groups. New shoots emerge from the base and start growing upwards until later when they tend to bend over and growing almost creeping.

Ribs: 8-10. The plants growing in the northern areas around Huasco and Totoral tend to have more ribs than the ones in other areas. In these cases, the number is between 10-15 ribs. The plants in the original habitats usually have stronger spines and more ribs than the ones in collections.

Trichocereus nigripilis is VERY similar to Trichocereus coquimbanus. The differences in the flower are: The flower of Trichocereus nigripilis always emerges from the top part/apex, is 8-11 cm long and usually very wide open. The tube is 25-36 mm long, the top part 20-30mm wide and white on the inside. The stamens are white, 15-23 mm long. The stylus is whitish, 42-70 mm long.

Backeberg gave Quebrada Honda as Typus location (which is roughly 30 km north of La Serena). Friedrich Ritters Collection number was FR536.

Where to buy seeds or plants of Trichocereus nigripilis?: Well, this cactus is rare and will usually not come labeled as this. The Peruvian field botanist Karel Knize sold a large amount of them labeled as KK1425 Trichocereus nigripilus but I, unfortunately, lack any pics of the plant. Chances are that the color pics on this page show KK1425 but that´s just a guess. Apart from that, the plant is rare and will probably come labeled as Trichocereus chiloensis or Trichocereus coquimbanus. As you can see, the b/w pics show some extremely spiny plants while Knizes “presumed” KK1425 shows something that is more like a chiloensis.  KK1425 was collected at Coquimbo, Chile at 1000 meters altitude.

Varieties: All I know is that there was/is a variety called Trichocereus nigripilis var. nigris. At the moment, I do not have any more info but I will add some later.

Trichocereus Spinibarbis aka Nigripilis313

Trichocereus Nigripilis / Trichocereu Spinibarbis at the typus location.

Trichocereus Spinibarbis aka Nigripilis312

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